The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 and the Federal-aid Highway Act of 1970 are the laws which control the evaluation of highway traffic noise impacts. They require environmental evaluation of Federal or Federal-aid highway projects, and reasonable and feasible mitigation of identified impacts. Also, on May 14, 1976, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) publicly stated that local governments must help control noise impacts through noise-compatible land-use planning and zoning.
The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) highway traffic noise regulation is 23 CFR 772. The regulation requires the following during the planning and design of a highway project:
- Identification of highway traffic noise impacts.
- Examination of potential abatement measures.
- The incorporation of reasonable and feasible highway traffic noise abatement measures into the highway project.
- Coordination with local officials to provide helpful information on compatible land use planning and control.
- Identification and incorporation of necessary measures to abate construction noise.
The regulation requires that FHWA make every feasible and reasonable effort to provide substantial noise reduction when highway traffic noise impacts occur. Compliance with 23 CFR 772 is a State prerequisite for receiving Federal-aid highway funds for construction or reconstruction of a highway.
HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE ANALYSIS
SHA conducts noise analysis for Type I
projects as part of the NEPA process. A typical traffic noise analysis includes:
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- Identification of Existing Activities and Land Use
All existing land uses and future planned development such as residential houses, schools, churches, and parks in the vicinity of the proposed highway project are identified. It is at these locations that existing noise levels are determined, future noise levels predicted, and the degree and extent of noise impact determined.
- Determination of Existing Noise Levels
A noise measurement is done to determine the existing noise level in the area. It is important to determine the source of the noise, as there may be other non-highway noise sources especially in commercial areas.
The ultimate goal is to establish a baseline for assessing the impact of highway traffic noise. In assessing traffic noise impact, the relationship of existing noise to predicted future noise levels is a factor.
- Prediction of Future Noise Levels
Based on the proposed highway alignment, a computer program developed by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is used to forecast the level of noise in the design year, which is typically about 20 years in the future. The computer program uses predicted loudest-hour (worst-case) traffic volumes, the percentage of trucks, and travel speeds to generate noise levels.
Contrary to popular belief, worst-case traffic related to highway noise is not a traffic jam. When there is a traffic jam, the vehicles do not move as fast as they normally would if there was no jam, and therefore do not make as much noise. The level of service (LOS) of a roadway characterizes the operating conditions on the facility in terms of traffic performance measures related to speed and travel time, freedom to maneuver, traffic interruptions, and comfort and convenience. The levels of service range from LOS A (least congested) to LOS F (most congested) as shown below:
LEVELS OF SERVICE
Adapted from A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets. AASHTO. 2001
Highway traffic noise is worst in LOS D, as this is when the roadway is nearing capacity. Although the vehicles may not be moving very fast, they are all moving and are doing so at a steady speed. This is the point at which any more vehicle additions will result in an unstable flow of traffic (stop-and-go traffic).
Other factors accounted for in the computer program are the distance of the receptors from the proposed highway and the physical features such as hills, valleys, buildings, or other obstructions that would affect how the noise would travel to the receptors.
The most recent computer program developed by the FHWA is called TNM (Traffic Noise Model) Version 2.5 available through the McTrans Center at the University of Florida.
- Determination of Noise Impact
Sensitive noise receptors such as residences, schools, churches, historic sites, etc are impacted by traffic noise if:
- future noise levels are forecasted to reach or exceed the impact threshold level of 66 dBA, or
- the highway project will increase future noise levels by 10 dBA or more over existing measured levels
- Evaluation of Noise Abatement Alternatives
If noise impacts are identified, consideration is given to noise abatement to minimize or eliminate impacts from the subject project. This alone does not mean that abatement will be implemented. All of the appropriate qualification criteria, as set forth in the Maryland SHA Sound Barrier Policy, must be met before abatement can be considered reasonable and feasible.
Abatement may or may not be in the form of a noise barrier. The specific form of noise abatement is determined on a site-by-site basis, and can be influenced by the type of use or activity that is affected.
HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE MEASUREMENT
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Why are noise measurements taken?
Noise measurements are taken for the following reasons:
- To evaluate existing highway traffic noise impacts.
- To analyze potential impacts from a planned highway project and to determine noise abatement measures if needed.
- To validate noise prediction computer models.
How are Noise Measurements taken?
- Measurement of highway traffic noise is conducted using the sound level meter.
- Each meter is fitted with a microphone, and is calibrated before and after each monitoring session using a standard acoustic calibrator.
- Most times, statistical descriptors are used as a single number to describe varying traffic noise levels. The most common statistical descriptors used for traffic noise are the L10 and Leq.
- L10 is the sound level that is exceeded 10 percent of the time in a given period.
- Leq is an average of the total sound energy measured in a given period. The Leq is the noise level descriptor commonly used in the State of Maryland.
- Standard practice in environmental noise measurement uses an A-weighted frequency response dB(A), which is a weighting or an adjustment of high and low pitched sounds made to approximate the way that an average person hears sounds. The A-weighted decibel scale begins at zero. This represents the faintest sound that can be heard by humans.
- In the State of Maryland, highway noise measurement studies may involve short-term measurements of 15 - 20 minutes or continuous monitoring for a minimum of 24 hours. The duration of the measurement is based on the needs of the study.
- Before noise measurements can be taken at residences, the SHA has to be granted permission by the residents of the individual homes.
When can Noise Measurements be taken?
Environmental noise measurements can only be taken under favorable weather conditions.
- Winds must not exceed 10 - 12 mph (calm or below 5 mph is preferable, but up to about 10 mph is considered acceptable). Excessive winds can create additional noise in the microphone, or in some extreme cases can cause break-up of the signal and actual loss of data.
- Measurements are not conducted if it is raining or snowing. Under such conditions, absorption or scattering of the sound waves can result in a falsely high or low reading.
Contact the Office of Highway Development(OHD) at 1-888-228-5003.